For promoting circulation and for massage by 'banging' down on the top line muscles of the horse. The idea is the horse should be able to see the wisp being raised, so he can tense his muscles in preparation as the wisp is 'banged' down, then the area is relaxed be a stroke with the stable rubber. Done with care it may be beneficial, done badly it may bruise the horse's muscles.
Start at the dip at the base of the crest line of the neck; they should be reasonably high and pronounced at the highest point of the shoulder. They should slope away gradually into the back.
Fistulous - an abscess above the vertebrae at the withers, extending down between the shoulder blades.
Pinched - when the saddle grips, rather than lies on them.
Wrung - an old term for withers, which are wrung or bruised by an ill-fitting saddle, although the skin is not broken.
Rudimentary teeth sometimes found in the mouth. They occur in front of the front molars on either side of the jaw. They can cause discomfort but can be removed by a vet.